The photovoltaic cells, called in the photo jargon photovoltaic module, represent a special type of solar panel that performs the function of producing electric current when it is exposed to sunlight. In recent years, photovoltaic panels are used with increasing frequency, so much so as to represent one of the best and most convenient solutions for home heating. In this guide, we want to show you how photovoltaic cells work.
Summary of Contents
How photovoltaic cells work?
- Photovoltaic system
- House exposed to the sun
The arrangement of the cells
The photovoltaic panel, from a structural point of view, looks like a set of modules that are placed on the roof of the house. A solution that is also aesthetically pleasing, because in most cases it does not affect the image of the building. The electricity that photovoltaics is able to produce when exposed to the sun’s rays is obviously low voltage. Therefore, to be used inside the house, it must be transformed into a 220 Volt alternating current. This transformation occurs thanks to the intervention of a special tool, called “inverter”.
The role of electrons
Therefore, photovoltaic panels convert the energy of photons into electrical energy. The resulting process is called the photovoltaic effect. The electrons present on the surface of the panels (there are silicon cells), are stimulated by sunlight and in a very short time transform the energy and make it usable inside the home.
The conversion of solar energy
We remind you that a solar panel emits direct current energy. It will be up to the inverter to transform it into an alternating current. Once transformed, the energy is propagated within the rooms, thanks to the channels used for the transfer and use of this energy. And here, as if by magic, our houses are perfectly heated and equipped with the necessary energy thanks to this futuristic and above all very economical tool.
Not everyone knows, perhaps, that a fundamental element to evaluate the positivity of a photovoltaic system is represented by the evaluation of its conversion efficiency. Solar panels, in fact, are not able to transform all the solar energy they store, but only a part. This data, in fact, represents the so-called “conversion efficiency”. In a good photovoltaic system, the conversion efficiency is usually around 20-22%.
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photovoltaic cells, solar panel